Presenter: Marie-Esther Lacuisse
From the late 1980s, trade liberalization and the neoliberal state policies supported by the Washington consensus led to the privatization of development projects in Latin America and an increase of foreign companies investments, particularly in the mining and hydroelectric power sectors, which go hand in hand. In front of this new industrial order, many socio-environmental conflicts have broken out in various Latin American countries; rural populations have begun to renew their “repertoire of contentious” by using international and transnational levers to try to defend their rights such as the participative spaces of international organizations but also by mobilizing the transnational environmental standards that frame the activities of neoliberal economy. Based on case studies in Latin America where individuals or groups have used environmental standards of multilateral development banks as support of mobilization, the purpose of this presentation is at questioning the way in which transnational and environmental standards can interact on/with the framing of local conflicts. While the norms and standards that govern production are most often analyzed from a top-down regulative perspective, I underline the interest to question its social uses in the perspective of “socio-legal studies”.